sodium sulfate attack

"Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and ...

Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling. Manu Santhanam, Purdue University. Abstract. The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete.

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Sulfate attack in concrete and mortar - Wikipedia

Sulfate attack in cement, mortar and concrete. Cement is composed of mainly two minerals tri-calcium silicates (C3S) and di-calcium silicates (C2S). Upon hydration, the main reaction products are a calcium silicate gels (C-S-H) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 or CH in cement chemistry.

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Durability of Concrete - University of Washington

C-S-H may be converted to gypsum by sulfate attack; Concrete Technology 32 Chemical Reactions Sodium sulfate attack: formation of sodium hydroxide as a by-product of the reaction ensures the continuation of high alkalinity in the system, essential for the stability of C-S-H. Na2SO4+CH+2H CaSO4.2H2O+2NaOH Magnesium-sulfate attack:

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Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate ...

@article{osti_116150, title = {Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. 3: Sulfate-resisting Portland cement -- Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions}, author = {Gollop, R.S. and Taylor, H.F.W.}, abstractNote = {Cubes of a sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) paste that had been stored for 6 months in solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or MgSO{sub 4} were ...

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MODELING SULFATE ATTACK IN CONCRETE USING …

state of dynamic equilibrium. Sulfate attack causes chemical and mechanical changes in the con-crete. Though progress has been made towards understanding certain aspects of the mechanisms of sulfate attack, modeling of sulfate attack still remains a challenge. In this work, the theoretical framework of mixture theory is used to model sulfate ...

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SULPHATE ATTACK IN CONCRETE AND ITS PREVENTION

Nov 27, 2013· Sulfate attack is a chemical breakdown mechanism where sulfate ions attack components of the cement paste. The compounds responsible for sulfate attack are water-soluble sulfate-containing salts, such as alkali-earth (calcium, magnesium) and alkali (sodium, potassium) sulfates that are capable of chemically reacting with components of concrete.

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Sulfate Attack on Concrete: Research Needs

The mechanism of sulfate attack on portland cement concrete is not well understood. This has limited the confidence that can be placed in the reliability of existing standard tests and models to predict performance and service life of concrete subjected to sulfate attack.

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What is Sodium Sulfate? - Definition from Corrosionpedia

It is generally believed that the molten sodium sulfate deposit is required to initiate a hot corrosion attack. The temperature range for a hot corrosion attack, although dependent on alloy composition, is generally 1470 to 1740°F (800 to 950°C). Sodium sulfate is a strong contributor to the rate of corrosion.

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304 Stainless Steel Corrosion Compatibility Chart - TNB.COM

304 Stainless Steel Corrosion Compatibility Chart ★★★★ A-Excellent The information in this chart has been supplied to Thomas & Betts by other reputable sources and is to be used ONLY as a guide in selecting equipment for appropriate chemical compat-

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Sulfate Attack on Concrete (Modern Concrete Technology ...

The literature, including some standards, gives several “variations on the theme.” In our opinion, and this is supported by credible scientific data, sulfate attack is a complex set of processes that cannot be easily divided into physical versus chemical or calcium- versus magnesium- versus sodium-sulfate attack.

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(PDF) Sodium sulfate attack on plain and blended cements ...

Sulfate expansion of mortar specimens was evaluated using ASTM C1012 test procedure. No acid titration was made to change pH of the sulfate solution. In addition to 5% sodium sulfate concentration prescribed in the standard, 18 selected cements were also exposed to sodium sulfate …

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Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore

4 Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore Outline of the guidance document Sections 1 to 5 provide information on the mechanism of sulfate attack and where it is most likely to be found. Key points made are: • For deleterious sulfate attack …

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Dealkalization - Wikipedia

An alternative method for sulfate treatment is with solid ammonium sulfate salt or aqueous solutions thereof. These materials are introduced inside the container after forming and decompose into gases in the annealing lehr, where the resulting sulfur-containing gas mixture carries out the dealkalization …

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Sulphate attack in Concrete, Its Effects, Causes and ...

Jul 17, 2016· Sodium Sulphate attacks calcium hydroxide and forms gypsum that becomes more than doubles the volume. Sulphate attack might show itself in different forms depending upon the chemical form of the sulfate and the atmospheric environment which the concrete is exposed to.

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Buy Tianeptine Sodium Capsules 12mg | Pure Tianeptine for Sale

The IUPAC Name of tianeptine sodium is sodium;7-[(3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxo-11H-benzo[c][2,1]benzothiazepin-11-yl)amino]heptanoate. Where to Buy Tianeptine Sodium Online. Zach Attack Supplements offers tianeptine sodium capsules in a 90 count container. Each capsule contains 12mg of tianeptine sodium that is at least 99% pure.

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how salt damages concrete - | CRETEDEFENDER

A reactive sodium silicate permanent concrete sealer that can extend the useful life of your concrete, prevent freeze thaw damage, and protect against salt damage, sulfate attack and chloride penetration… Call or email us to find out how CreteDefender products can make your business dollar go farther and keep your assets looking sharp longer!

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POLYETHYLENE/CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY GUIDE

Sodium Silicate, L Sodium Sulfate, L Sodium Sulfide, L Sodium Sulfite, L Sodium Sulfonates, L ... attack polyethylene or have vapor ... Do not use polyethylene containers in these applications. POLYETHYLENE/CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY GUIDE. Title: PolyChemCompatibility.indd Created …

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Sodium: The Facts

Sodium: the facts The body needs a small amount of sodium to function, but most Americans consume too much sodium. High sodium consumption can raise blood pressure, and high blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. 1. Heart disease and stroke are the nation’s first and fifth leading causes of death. 2

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Current knowledge of external sulfate attack

Chemical sulfate attack Sulfate ingress Sulfate attack requires intimate contact between sulfate anions and the cement paste of the concrete. Therefore, if sulfate attack Chemical characteristic XA1 XA2 XA3 SO 4 2 mg/l >200 and <600 .600 and <3000 .3000 and <6000 Carbon dioxide aggressive mg/l >15 and <40 .40 and <100 .100 up to saturation

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Chemical Sulfate Attack on Concrete | Civil Engineering Forum

Sulfate ions attack calcium hydroxide and the hydration products of C 3 A, forming gypsum and ettringite in expansive reactions. Depending on the cations involved with SO 4 such as Mg and Na, sulfate attack can be more or less aggressive. For instance, magnesium sulfate attacks concrete in a way similar to sodium sulfate but in addition, it ...

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Sulfate attack in concrete - Understanding Cement

Sulfate attack can affect concrete through either internal or external reactions. General sulfate-related distress observed on the surface of concrete is referred to as external sulfate attack (or simply sulfate attack).External sulfate attack occurs when soil and groundwater contain sufficient sulfate levels, in the forms of sodium, potassium, magnesium, or calcium sulfate, which react with ...

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Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A ...

Jan 14, 2017· Fig. 1- Types of sulfate attack. Internal sulfate attack occurs when a source of sulfate is incorporated in the concrete when mixing like excess gypsum in cement, sulfate in the aggregate, water ...

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Long-Term Performance of Blended Cement Paste Containing ...

Dec 12, 2018· Magnesium‐Sodium Sulfate Attack in Plain and Blended Cements. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering May 1994 . Hydration and Compressive Strength of Blended Cement Containing Fly Ash and Limestone as Cement Replacement. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering June 2014 .

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Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans

can affect the sulfate attack resistance of alkali activated pozzolan concrete mixture. The use of non-silicate alkaline activators increased the sulfate attack resistance of alkali-activated fly ash and slag cement in a MgSO 4 solution (Bakharev 2005; Shi et al. 2006) while steam curing of specimens made with water-glass with a modulus from 1 to

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Physical Salt Attack from Sodium Sulfate - YouTube

Aug 13, 2012· The focus of these presentations is on concrete deterioration due to the crystallization of salts (for example, sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate) in pores near drying faces/evaporative zones ...

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Physical Salt Attack on Concrete, Part 2

salt attack is caused by sodium sulfate salts (Folliard and Sandberg 1994, Scherer 2004). • The changes in temperature and relative humidity can cause alternate cycles of dissolution and crystallization of sodium sulfate salts, resulting in phase changes between anhydrous sodium sulfate (thenardite, Na2SO4) and decahydrate sodium sulfate

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Sodium Sulfate, Potassium Sulfate, and Magnesium Sulfate ...

Mar 01, 2019· Do not take other drugs within 1 hour of starting sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate. Talk with your doctor about how to take your other drugs with sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate. Mix with water as told before you take sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate.

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Types of Sulphate Attack in Concrete- Influences and Sources

Sulphate attack is the reaction between concrete constituents and sulphate ions in the pore solution of concrete that results in the production of new product with a fairly large molar volume. The sulphate attack can have an internal origin which means the attack occurs without any contribution from ...

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Magnesium‐Sodium Sulfate Attack in Plain and Blended ...

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Durability - cement.org

Resistance to Sulfate Attack: High amounts of sulfates in soil or water can attack and destroy a concrete that is not properly designed. Sulfates (for example calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate) can attack concrete by reacting with hydrated compounds in …

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